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Resources

Resources by Therapy Discipline

Speech-Language Pathology

Selective mutism

Selective mutism typically happens during childhood and is usually first noticed when the child starts school. A child with selective mutism does not speak in certain situations (e.g., at school), but will speak at other times, like at home or with friends.

Aphasia

Aphasia is a disorder caused by damage to the parts of the brain that control language. It makes it hard for a person to read, write, and say what they mean to say.

Fluency & articulation

While stuttering affects the fluency of speech, an articulation disorder involves problems making sounds — for example, sounds being substituted, left off, added or changed. Both challenges can make it difficult for other people to understand what is being communicated.

Childhood Apraxia of Speech

Childhood Apraxia of Speech (CAS) is a motor speech disorder in which children have problems saying sounds, syllables, and words. The challenge is not linked to muscle weakness or paralysis — the child knows what he/she wants to say, but his/her brain has difficulty coordinating the muscle movements necessary to say those words. 

Feeding

Many children with speech delays have problems with oral-motor development, or challenges using their mouths to produce speech sounds. In younger infants and toddlers, these problems may manifest as feeding problems. There are many links between feeding challenges and speech development. Many articulatory errors made by young children with feeding difficulties are similar to the movements used in feeding.  

Occupational Therapy

Feeding

Infant and young child feeding are a cornerstone of care for childhood development and a vital function for survival. When children are unable to eat, they cannot thrive cognitively, physically, or emotionally. When you consider that each swallow takes 31 muscles and 6 cranial nerves, it’s understandable that many infants and children have challenges eating and feeding.

Sensory processing

Sensory processing refers to the way the nervous system takes in information from the senses and turns them into appropriate motor/behavioural responses. Sensory Processing Disorder is a condition that exists when sensory signals don’t get organized in appropriate responses, causing a ‘traffic jam’ of information in the brain.

Motor skills

A child’s ability to control movements and respond to his/her environment begins to develop even before birth. Although there are certain milestones children typically master at certain ages, each child is unique and develops their motor skills at their own rate. Motor skills are often divided into a) gross motor skills (running, jumping, walking); and b) fine motor skills (using utensils, dressing, printing).

Psychology

General mental health

Although not all children who experience mental distress are diagnosed, it is estimated that one in five Canadian children and youth suffer experience serious mental health challenges.

Mental health helplines & help sites

Helplines can provide children and their families with safe, non-judgemental counselling and support during times of mental distress.

Selective Mutism

Selective mutism typically happens during childhood and is usually first noticed when the child starts school. A child with selective mutism does not speak in certain situations (e.g., at school), but will speak at other times, like at home or with friends.

Trauma

Childhood traumatic stress occurs when children and adolescents are exposed to events or situations that overwhelm their ability to cope. Experiencing trauma in childhood can have a severe and long-lasting effect with children who have been traumatized and now see the world as a frightening and dangerous place.

Anxiety, depression & other mood disorders

Mood problems affect a person’s thoughts, how they feel about themselves, and the way they think about things. Even very young children can experience mood disorders, although the way their feelings are expressed may be quite different from the way an adult would express emotions.

Eating disorders

Eating disorders can be seriously debilitating conditions that present both psychological challenges and medical complications. The impact on the family can be equally as challenging.

Behavioural Therapy

Applied Behavioural Analysis (ABA)

Applied Behavioural Analysis (ABA) is based on principles that explain how learning takes place. It then applies these techniques and principles to everyday situations, with the goals of increasing or decreasing targeted behaviours. Although frequently used with people with autism, ABA is based on more than 50 years of scientific investigation with individuals affected by a wide range of behavioural and developmental disorders.

Physiotherapy

Motor Skills

A child’s ability to control movements and respond to his/her environment begins to develop even before birth. Although there are certain milestones children typically master at certain ages, each child is unique and develops their motor skills at their own rate. Motor skills are often divided into a) gross motor skills (running, jumping, walking); and b) fine motor skills (using utensils, dressing, printing).



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